Skip to content

Aggregation

Data is not always tractable is its raw form. Sometimes we need to consolidate, collate, combine or condense the mountains of data we receive. This might just be a case of reducing the volume of data to a manageable level. For example, consider fast moving data from domains like instrumentation, finance, signal processing and operational intelligence. This kind of data can change at a rate of over ten values per second for individual sources, and much higher rates if we're observing multiple sources. Can a person actually consume this? For human consumption, aggregate values like averages, minimums and maximums can be of more use.

We can often achieve more than this. The way in which we combine and correlate may enable us to reveal patterns, providing insights that would not be available from any individual message, or from simple reduction to a single statistical measure. Rx's composability enables us to express complex and subtle computations over streams of data enabling us not just to reduce the volume of messages that users have to deal with, but to increase the amount of value in each message a human receives.

We will start with the simplest aggregation functions, which reduce an observable sequence to a sequence with a single value in some specific way. We then move on to more general-purpose operators that enable you to define your own aggregation mechanisms.

Simple Numeric Aggregation

Rx supports various standard LINQ operators that reduce all of the values in a sequence down to a single numeric result.

Count

Count tells you how many elements a sequence contains. Although this is a standard LINQ operator, Rx's version deviates from the IEnumerable<T> version as Rx will return an observable sequence, not a scalar value. As usual, this is because of the push-related nature of Rx. Rx's Count can't demand that its source supply all elements immediately, so it just has to wait until the source says that it has finished. The sequence that Count returns will always be of type IObservable<int>, regardless of the source's element type. This will do nothing until the source completes, at which point it will emit a single value reporting how many elements the source produced, and then it will in turn immediately complete. This example uses Count with Range, because Range generates all of its values as quickly as possible and then completes, meaning we get a result from Count immediately:

IObservable<int> numbers = Observable.Range(0,3);
numbers.Count().Dump("count");

Output:

count-->3
count Completed

If you are expecting your sequence to have more values than a 32-bit signed integer can count, you can use the LongCount operator instead. This is just the same as Count except it returns an IObservable<long>.

Sum

The Sum operator adds together all the values in its source, producing the total as its only output. As with Count, Rx's Sum differs from most other LINQ providers in that it does not produce a scalar as its output. It produces an observable sequence that does nothing until its source completes. When the source completes, the observable returned by Sum produces a single value and then immediately completes. This example shows it in use:

IObservable<int> numbers = Observable.Range(1,5);
numbers.Sum().Dump("sum");

The output shows the single result produced by Sum:

sum-->15
sum completed

Sum is only able to work with values of type int, long, float, double decimal, or the nullable versions of these. This means that there are types you might expect to be able to Sum that you can't. For example the BigInteger type in the System.Numerics namespace represents integer values whose size is limited only by available memory, and how long you're prepared to wait for it to perform calculations. (Even basic arithmetic gets very slow on numbers with millions of digits.) You can use + to add these together because the type defines an overload for that operator. But Sum has historically had no way to find that. The introduction of generic math in C# 11.0 means that it would technically be possible to introduce a version of Sum that would work for any type T that implemented IAdditionOperators<T, T, T>. However, that would mean a dependency on .NET 7.0 or later (because generic math is not available in older versions), and at the time of writing this, Rx supports .NET 7.0 through its net6.0 target. It could introduce a separate net7.0 and/or net8.0 target to enable this, but has not yet done so. (To be fair, Sum in LINQ to Objects also doesn't support this yet.)

If you supply Sum with the nullable versions of these types (e.g., your source is an IObservable<int?>) then Sum will also return a sequence with a nullable item type, and it will produce null if any of the input values is null.

Although Sum can work only with a small, fixed list of numeric types, your source doesn't necessarily have to produce values of those types. Sum offers overloads that accept a lambda that extracts a suitable numeric value from each input element. For example, suppose you wanted to answer the following unlikely question: if the next 10 ships that happen to broadcast descriptions of themselves over AIS were put side by side, would they all fit in a channel of some particular width? We could do this by filtering the AIS messages down to those that provide ship size information, using Take to collect the next 10 such messages, and then using Sum. The Ais.NET library's IVesselDimensions interface does not implement addition (and even if it did, we already just saw that Rx wouldn't be able to exploit that), but that's fine: all we need to do is supply a lambda that can take an IVesselDimensions and return a value of some numeric type that Sum can process:

IObservable<IVesselDimensions> vesselDimensions = receiverHost.Messages
    .OfType<IVesselDimensions>();

IObservable<int> totalVesselWidths = vesselDimensions
    .Take(10)
    .Sum(dimensions => 
            checked((int)(dimensions.DimensionToPort + dimensions.DimensionToStarboard)));

(If you're wondering what's with cast and the checked keyword here, AIS defines these values as unsigned integers, so the Ais.NET library reports them as uint, which is not a type Rx's Sum supports. In practice, it's very unlikely that a vessel will be wide enough to overflow a 32-bit signed integer, so we just cast it to int, and the checked keyword will throw an exception in the unlikely event that we encounter ship more than 2.1 billion metres wide.)

Average

The standard LINQ operator Average effectively calculates the value that Sum would calculate, and then divides it by the value that Count would calculate. And once again, whereas most LINQ implementations would return a scalar, Rx's Average produces an observable.

Although Average can process values of the same numeric types as Sum, the output type will be different in some cases. If the source is IObservable<int>, or if you use one of the overloads that takes a lambda that extracts the value from the source, and that lambda returns an int, the result will be a double. This is because the average of a set of whole numbers is not necessarily a whole number. Likewise, averaging long values produces a double. However, inputs of type decimal produce outputs of type decimal, and likewise float inputs produce a float output.

As with Sum, if the inputs to Average are nullable, the output will be too.

Min and Max

Rx implements the standard LINQ Min and Max operators which find the element with the highest or lowest value. As with all the other operators in this section, these do not return scalars, and instead return an IObservable<T> that produces a single value.

Rx defines specialized implementations for the same numeric types that Sum and Average support. However, unlike those operators it also defines an overload that will accept source items of any type. When you use Min or Max on a source type where Rx does not define a specialized implementation, it uses Comparer<T>.Default to compare items. There is also an overload enabling you to pass a comparer.

As with Sum and Average there are overloads that accept a callback. If you use these overloads, Min and Max will invoke this callback for each source item, and will look for the lowest or highest value that your callback returns. Note that the single output they eventually produce will be a value returned by the callback, and not the original source item from which that value was derived. To see what that means, look at this example:

IObservable<int> widthOfWidestVessel = vesselDimensions
    .Take(10)
    .Max(dimensions => 
            checked((int)(dimensions.DimensionToPort + dimensions.DimensionToStarboard)));

Max returns an IObservable<int> here, which will be the width of the widest vessel out of the next 10 messages that report vessel dimensions. But what if you didn't just want to see the width? What if you wanted the whole message?

MinBy and MaxBy

Rx offers two subtle variations on Min and Max: MinBy and MaxBy. These are similar to the callback-based Min and Max we just saw that enable us to work with sequences of elements that are not numeric values, but which may have numeric properties. The difference is that instead of returning the minimum or maximum value, MinBy and MaxBy tell you which source element produced that value. For example, suppose that instead of just discovering the width of the widest ship, we wanted to know what ship that actually was:

IObservable<IVesselDimensions> widthOfWidestVessel = vesselDimensions
    .Take(10)
    .MaxBy(dimensions => 
              checked((int)(dimensions.DimensionToPort + dimensions.DimensionToStarboard)));

This is very similar to the example in the preceding section. We're working with a sequence where the element type is IVesselDimensions, so we've supplied a callback that extracts the value we want to use for comparison purposes. (The same callback as last time, in fact.) Just like Max, MaxBy is trying to work out which element produces the highest value when passed to this callback. It can't know which that is until the source completes. If the source hasn't completed yet, all it can know is the highest yet, but that might be exceeded by a future value. So as with all the other operators we've looked at in this chapter, this produces nothing until the source completes, which is why I've put a Take(10) in there.

However, the type of sequence we get is different. Max returned an IObservable<int>, because it invokes the callback for every item in the source, and then produces the highest of the values that our callback returned. But with MaxBy, we get back an IObservable<IVesselDimensions> because MaxBy tells us which source element produced that value.

Of course, there might be more than one item that has the highest width—there might be three equally large ships, for example. With Max this doesn't matter because it's only trying to return the actual value: it doesn't matter how many source items had the maximum value, because it's the same value in all cases. But with MaxBy we get back the original items that produce the maximum, and if there were three that all did this, we wouldn't want Rx to pick just one arbitrarily.

So unlike the other aggregation operators we've seen so far, an observable returned by MinBy or MaxBy doesn't necessarily produce just a single value. It might produce several. You might ask whether it really is an aggregation operator, since it's not reducing the input sequence to one output. But it is reducing it to a single value: the minimum (or maximum) returned by the callback. It's just that it presents the result slightly differently. It produces a sequence based on the result of the aggregation process. You could think of it as a combination of aggregation and filtering: it performs aggregation to determine the minimum or maximum, and then filters the source sequence down just to the elements for which the callback produces that value.

Note: LINQ to Objects also defines MinBy and MaxBy methods, but they are slightly different. These LINQ to Objects versions do in fact arbitrarily pick a single source element—if there are multiple source values all producing the minimum (or maximum) result, LINQ to Objects gives you just one whereas Rx gives you all of them. Rx defined its versions of these operators years before .NET 6.0 added their LINQ to Objects namesakes, so if you're wondering why Rx does it differently, the real question is why did LINQ to Objects not follow Rx's precedent.

Simple Boolean Aggregation

LINQ defines several standard operators that reduce entire sequences to a single boolean value.

Any

The Any operator has two forms. The parameterless overload effectively asks the question "are there any elements in this sequence?" It returns an observable sequence that will produce a single value of false if the source completes without emitting any values. If the source does produce a value however, then when the first value is produced, the result sequence will immediately produce true and then complete. If the first notification it gets is an error, then it will pass that error on.

var subject = new Subject<int>();
subject.Subscribe(Console.WriteLine, () => Console.WriteLine("Subject completed"));
var any = subject.Any();

any.Subscribe(b => Console.WriteLine("The subject has any values? {0}", b));

subject.OnNext(1);
subject.OnCompleted();

Output:

1
The subject has any values? True
subject completed

If we now remove the OnNext(1), the output will change to the following

subject completed
The subject has any values? False

In the case where the source does produce a value, Any immediately unsubscribes from it. So if the source wants to report an error, Any will only see this if that is the first notification it produces.

var subject = new Subject<int>();
subject.Subscribe(Console.WriteLine,
    ex => Console.WriteLine("subject OnError : {0}", ex),
    () => Console.WriteLine("Subject completed"));

IObservable<bool> any = subject.Any();

any.Subscribe(b => Console.WriteLine("The subject has any values? {0}", b),
    ex => Console.WriteLine(".Any() OnError : {0}", ex),
    () => Console.WriteLine(".Any() completed"));

subject.OnError(new Exception());

Output:

subject OnError : System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown.
.Any() OnError : System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown.

But if the source were to generate a value before an exception, e.g.:

subject.OnNext(42);
subject.OnError(new Exception());

we'd see this output instead:

42
The subject has any values? True
.Any() completed
subject OnError : System.Exception: Exception of type 'System.Exception' was thrown.

Although the handler that subscribed directly to the source subject still sees the error, our any observable reported a value of True and then completed, meaning it did not report the error that followed.

The Any method also has an overload that takes a predicate. This effectively asks a slightly different question: "are there any elements in this sequence that meet these criteria?" The effect is similar to using Where followed by the no-arguments form of Any.

IObservable<bool> any = subject.Any(i => i > 2);
// Functionally equivalent to 
IObservable<bool> longWindedAny = subject.Where(i => i > 2).Any();

All

The All operator is similar to the Any method that takes a predicate, except that all values must satisfy the predicate. As soon as the predicate rejects a value, the observable returned by All produces a false value and then completes. If the source reaches its end without producing any elements that do not satisfy the predicate, then All will push true as its value. (A consequence of this is that if you use All on an empty sequence, the result will be a sequence that produces true. This is consistent with how All works in other LINQ providers, but it might be surprising for anyone not familiar with the formal logic convention known as vacuous truth.)

Once All decides to produce a false value, it immediately unsubscribes from the source (just like Any does as soon as it determines that it can produce true.) If the source produces an error before this happens, the error will be passed along to the subscriber of the All method.

var subject = new Subject<int>();
subject.Subscribe(Console.WriteLine, () => Console.WriteLine("Subject completed"));
IEnumerable<bool> all = subject.All(i => i < 5);
all.Subscribe(b => Console.WriteLine($"All values less than 5? {b}"));

subject.OnNext(1);
subject.OnNext(2);
subject.OnNext(6);
subject.OnNext(2);
subject.OnNext(1);
subject.OnCompleted();

Output:

1
2
6
All values less than 5? False
all completed
2
1
subject completed

IsEmpty

The LINQ IsEmpty operator is logically the opposite of the no-arguments Any method. It returns true if and only if the source completes without producing any elements. If the source produces an item, IsEmpty produces false and immediately unsubscribes. If the source produces an error, this forwards that error.

Contains

The Contains operator determines whether a particular element is present in a sequence. You could implement it using Any, just supplying a callback that compares each item with the value you're looking for. However, it will typically be slightly more succinct, and may be a more direct expression of intent to write Contains.

var subject = new Subject<int>();
subject.Subscribe(
    Console.WriteLine, 
    () => Console.WriteLine("Subject completed"));

IEnumerable<bool> contains = subject.Contains(2);

contains.Subscribe(
    b => Console.WriteLine("Contains the value 2? {0}", b),
    () => Console.WriteLine("contains completed"));

subject.OnNext(1);
subject.OnNext(2);
subject.OnNext(3);
    
subject.OnCompleted();

Output:

1
2
Contains the value 2? True
contains completed
3
Subject completed

There is also an overload to Contains that allows you to specify an implementation of IEqualityComparer<T> other than the default for the type. This can be useful if you have a sequence of custom types that may have some special rules for equality depending on the use case.

Build your own aggregations

If the built-in aggregations described in the preceding sections do not meet your needs, you can build your own. Rx provides two different ways to do this.

Aggregate

The Aggregate method is very flexible: it is possible to build any of the operators shown so far in this chapter with it. You supply it with a function, and it invokes that function once for every element. But it doesn't just pass the element into your function: it also provides a way for your function to aggregate information. As well as the current element, it also passes in an accumulator. The accumulator can be any type you like—it will depend on what sort of information you're looking to accumulate. Whatever value your function returns becomes the new accumulator value, and it will pass that into the function along with the next element from the source. There are a few variations on this, but the simplest overload looks like this:

IObservable<TSource> Aggregate<TSource>(
    this IObservable<TSource> source, 
    Func<TSource, TSource, TSource> accumulator)

If you wanted to produce your own version of Count for int values, you could do so by providing a function that just adds 1 for each value the source produces:

IObservable<int> sum = source.Aggregate((acc, element) => acc + 1);

To understand exactly what this is doing, let's look at how Aggregate will call this lambda. To make that slightly easier to see, suppose we put that lambda in its own variable:

Func<int, int, int> c = (acc, element) => acc + 1;

Now suppose the source produces an item with the value 100. Aggregate will invoke our function:

c(0, 100) // returns 1

The first argument is the current accumulator. Aggregate has used default(int) for the initial accumulator value, which is 0. Our function returns 1, which becomes the new accumulator value. So if the source produces a second value, say, 200, Aggregate will pass the new accumulator, along with the second value from the source:

c(1, 200) // returns 2

This particular function completely ignores its second argument (the element from the source). It just adds one to the accumulator each time. So the accumulator is nothing more than a record of the number of times our function has been called.

Now let's look at how we might implement Sum using Aggregate:

Func<int, int, int> s = (acc, element) => acc + element
IObservable<int> sum = source.Aggregate(s);

For the first element, Aggregate will again pass the default value for our chosen accumulator type, int: 0. And it will pass the first element value. So again if the first element is 100 it does this:

s(0, 100) // returns 100

And then if the second element is 200, Aggregate will make this call:

s(100, 200) // returns 300

Notice that this time, the first argument was 100, because that's what the previous invocation of s returned. So in this case, after seeing elements 100 and 200, the accumulator's value is 300, which is the sum of all the elements.

What if we want the initial accumulator value to be something other than default(TAccumulator)? There's an overload for that. For example, here's how we could implement something like All with Aggregate:

IObservable<bool> all = source.Aggregate(true, (acc, element) => acc && element);

This isn't exactly equivalent to the real All by the way: it handles errors differently. All instantly unsubscribes from its source if it sees a single element that is false, because it knows that nothing else the source produces can possibly change the outcome. That means that if the source had been about to produce an error, it will no longer have the opportunity to do so because All unsubscribed. But Aggregate has no way of knowing that the accumulator has entered a state from which it can never leave, so it will remain subscribed to the source until the source completes (or until whichever code subscribed to the IObservable<T> returned by Aggregate unsubscribes). This means that if the source were to produce true, then false, Aggregate would, unlike All, remain subscribed to the source, so if the source goes on to call OnError, Aggregate will receive that error, and pass it on to its subscriber.

Here's a way to think about Aggregate that some people find helpful. If your source produces the values 1 through 5, and if the function we pass to Aggregate is called f, then the value that Aggregate produces once the source completes will be this:

T result = f(f(f(f(f(default(T), 1), 2), 3), 4), 5);

So in the case of our recreation of Count, the accumulator type was int, so that becomes:

int sum = s(s(s(s(s(0, 1), 2), 3), 4), 5);
// Note: Aggregate doesn't return this directly -
// it returns an IObservable<int> that produces this value.

Rx's Aggregate doesn't perform all those invocations at once: it invokes the function each time the source produces an element, so the calculations will be spread out over time. If your callback is a pure function—one that is unaffected by global variables and other environmental factors, and which will always return the same result for any particular input—this doesn't matter. The result of Aggregate will be the same as if it had all happened in one big expression like the preceding example. But if your callback's behaviour is affected by, say, a global variable, or by the current contents of the filesystem, then the fact that it will be invoked when the source produces each value may be more significant.

Aggregate has other names in some programming systems by the way. Some systems call it reduce. It is also often referred to as a fold. (Specifically a left fold. A right fold proceeds in reverse. Conventionally its function takes arguments in the reverse order, so it would look like s(1, s(2, s(3, s(4, s(5, 0))))). Rx does not offer a built-in right fold. It would not be a natural fit because it would have to wait until it received the final element before it could begin, meaning it would need to hold onto every element in the entire sequence, and then evaluate the entire fold at once when the sequence completes.)

You might have spotted that in my quest to re-implement some of the built-in aggregation operators, I went straight from Sum to Any. What about Average? It turns out we can't do that with the overloads I've shown you so far. And that's because Average needs to accumulate two pieces of information—the running total and the count—and it also needs to perform once final step right at the end: it needs to divide the total by the count. With the overloads shown so far, we can only get part way there:

IObservable<int> nums = Observable.Range(1, 5);

IObservable<(int Count, int Sum)> avgAcc = nums.Aggregate(
    (Count: 0, Sum: 0),
    (acc, element) => (Count: acc.Count + 1, Sum: acc.Sum + element));

This uses a tuple as the accumulator, enabling it to accumulate two values: the count and the sum. But the final accumulator value becomes the result, and that's not what we want. We're missing that final step that calculates the average by dividing the sum by the count. Fortunately, Aggregate offers a 3rd overload that enables us to provide this final step. We pass a second callback which will be invoked just once when the source completes. Aggregate passes the final accumulator value into this lambda, and then whatever it returns becomes the single item produced by the observable that Aggregate returns.

IObservable<double> avg = nums.Aggregate(
    (Count: 0, Sum: 0),
    (acc, element) => (Count: acc.Count + 1, Sum: acc.Sum + element),
    acc => ((double) acc.Sum) / acc.Count);

I've been showing how Aggregate can re-implement some of the built-in aggregation operators to illustrate that it is a powerful and very general operator. However, that's not what we use it for. Aggregate is useful precisely because it lets us define custom aggregation.

For example, suppose I wanted to build up a list of the names of all the ships that have broadcast their details over AIS. Here's one way to do that:

IObservable<IReadOnlySet<string>> allNames = vesselNames
    .Take(10)
    .Aggregate(
        ImmutableHashSet<string>.Empty,
        (set, name) => set.Add(name.VesselName));

I've used ImmutableHashSet<string> here because its usage patterns happen to fit Aggregate neatly. An ordinary HashSet<string> would also have worked, but is a little less convenient because its Add method doesn't return the set, so our function needs an extra statement to return the accumulated set:

IObservable<IReadOnlySet<string>> allNames = vesselNames
    .Take(10)
    .Aggregate(
        new HashSet<string>(),
        (set, name) =>
        {
            set.Add(name.VesselName);
            return set;
        });

With either of these implementations, vesselNames will produce a single value that is a IReadOnlySet<string> containing each vessel name seen in the first 10 messages that report a name.

I've had to fudge an issue in these last two examples. I've made them work over just the first 10 suitable messages to emerge. Think about what would happen if I didn't have the Take(10) in there. The code would compile, but we'd have a problem. The AIS message source I've been using in various examples is an endless source. Ships will continue to move around the oceans for the foreseeable future. Ais.NET does not contain any code designed to detect either the end of civilisation, or the invention of technologies that will render the use of ships obsolete, so it will never call OnCompleted on its subscribers. The observable returned by Aggregate reports nothing until its source either completes or fails. So if we remove that Take(10), the behaviour would be identical Observable.Never<IReadOnlySet<string>>. I had to force the input to Aggregate to come to an end to make it produce something. But there is another way.

Scan

While Aggregate allows us to reduce complete sequences to a single, final value, sometimes this is not what we need. If we are dealing with an endless source, we might want something more like a running total, updated each time we receive a value. The Scan operator is designed for exactly this requirement. The signatures for both Scan and Aggregate are the same; the difference is that Scan doesn't wait for the end of its input. It produces the aggregated value after every item.

We can use this to build up a set of vessel names as in the preceding section, but with Scan we don't have to wait until the end. This will report the current list every time it receives a message containing a name:

IObservable<IReadOnlySet<string>> allNames = vesselNames
    .Scan(
        ImmutableHashSet<string>.Empty,
        (set, name) => set.Add(name.VesselName));

Note that this allNames observable will produce elements even if nothing has changed. If the accumulated set of names already contained the name that just emerged from vesselNames, the call to set.Add will do nothing, because that name will already be in the set. But Scan scan produces one output for each input, and doesn't care if the accumulator didn't change. Whether this matters will depend on what you are planning to do with this allNames observable, but if you need to, you can fix this easily with the DistinctUntilChanged operator shown in chapter 5.

You could think of Scan as being a version of Aggregate that shows its working. If we wanted to see how the process of calculating an average aggregates the count and sum, we could write this:

IObservable<int> nums = Observable.Range(1, 5);

IObservable<(int Count, int Sum)> avgAcc = nums.Scan(
    (Count: 0, Sum: 0),
    (acc, element) => (Count: acc.Count + 1, Sum: acc.Sum + element));

avgAcc.Dump("acc");

That produces this output:

acc-->(1, 1)
acc-->(2, 3)
acc-->(3, 6)
acc-->(4, 10)
acc-->(5, 15)
acc completed

You can see clearly here that Scan is emitting the current accumulated values each time the source produces a value.

Unlike Aggregate, Scan doesn't offer an overload taking a second function to transform the accumulator into the result. So we can see the tuple containing the count and sum here, but not the actual average value we want. But we can achieve that by using the Select operator described in the Transformation chapter:

IObservable<double> avg = nums.Scan(
    (Count: 0, Sum: 0),
    (acc, element) => (Count: acc.Count + 1, Sum: acc.Sum + element))
    .Select(acc => ((double) acc.Sum) / acc.Count);

avg.Dump("avg");

Now we get this output:

avg-->1
avg-->1.5
avg-->2
avg-->2.5
avg-->3
avg completed

Scan is a more generalised operator than Aggregate. You could implement Aggregate by combining Scan with the TakeLast() operator described in the Filtering chapter.

source.Aggregate(0, (acc, current) => acc + current);
// is equivalent to 
source.Scan(0, (acc, current) => acc + current).TakeLast();

Aggregation is useful for reducing volumes of data or combining multiple elements to produce averages, or other measures that incorporate information from multiple elements. But to perform some kinds of analysis we will also need to slice up or otherwise restructure our data before calculating aggregated values. So in the next chapter we'll look at the various mechanisms Rx offers for partitioning data.

Ian Griffiths

Technical Fellow I

Ian Griffiths

Ian has worked in various aspects of computing, including computer networking, embedded real-time systems, broadcast television systems, medical imaging, and all forms of cloud computing. Ian is a Technical Fellow at endjin, and Microsoft MVP in Developer Technologies. He is the author of O'Reilly's Programming C# 10.0, and has written Pluralsight courses on WPF (and here) and the TPL. He's a maintainer of Reactive Extensions for .NET, Reaqtor, and endjin's 50+ open source projects. Technology brings him joy.