Introduction to Rx
Kindle edition (2012)
Practical Rx Training
London 6-7 October 2015
Presented by the author of IntroToRx.com
Transformation of sequences
The values from the sequences we consume are not always in the format we need. Sometimes there is too much noise in the data so we strip the values down. Sometimes each value needs to be expanded either into a richer object or into more values. By composing operators, Rx allows you to control the quality as well as the quantity of values in the observable sequences you consume.
Up until now, we have looked at creation of sequences, transition into sequences, and, the reduction of sequences by filtering, aggregating or folding. In this chapter we will look at transforming sequences. This allows us to introduce our third category of functional methods, bind. A bind function in Rx will take a sequence and apply some set of transformations on each element to produce a new sequence. To review:
Ana(morphism) T --> IObservable<T>
Cata(morphism) IObservable<T> --> T
Bind IObservable<T1> --> IObservable<T2>
Now that we have been introduced to all three of our higher order functions, you may find that you already know them. Bind and Cata(morphism) were made famous by MapReduce framework from Google. Here Google refer to Bind and Cata by their perhaps more common aliases; Map and Reduce.
It may help to remember our terms as the ABCs of higher order functions.
Ana enters the sequence. T --> IObservable<T>
Bind modifies the sequence. IObservable<T1> --> IObservable<T2>
Cata leaves the sequence. IObservable<T> --> T
The classic transformation method is Select. It allows you provide a function
that takes a value of
TSource and return a value of
The signature for Select is nice and simple and suggests that its most
common usage is to transform from one type to another type, i.e. IObservable<TSource>
Note that there is no restriction that prevents
being the same thing. So for our first example, we will take a sequence of integers
and transform each value by adding 3, resulting in another sequence of integers.
While this can be useful, more common use is to transform values from one type to another. In this example we transform integer values to characters.
If we really want to take advantage of LINQ we could transform our sequence of integers to a sequence of anonymous types.
To further leverage LINQ we could write the above query using query comprehension syntax.
In Rx, Select has another overload. The second overload provides two values
selector function. The additional argument is the element's
index in the sequence. Use this method if the index of the element in the sequence
is important to your selector function.
Cast and OfType
If you were to get a sequence of objects i.e. IObservable<object>, you may find it less than useful. There is a method specifically for IObservable<object> that will cast each element to a given type, and logically it is called Cast<T>().
If however we were to add a value that could not be cast into the sequence then we get errors.
Thankfully, if this is not what we want, we could use the alternative extension method OfType<T>().
It is fair to say that while these are convenient methods to have, we could have created them with the operators we already know about.
Timestamp and TimeInterval
As observable sequences are asynchronous it can be convenient to know timings for when elements are received. The Timestamp extension method is a handy convenience method that wraps elements of a sequence in a light weight Timestamped<T> structure. The Timestamped<T> type is a struct that exposes the value of the element it wraps, and the timestamp it was created with as a DateTimeOffset.
In this example we create a sequence of three values, one second apart, and then
transform it to a time stamped sequence. The handy implementation of
on Timestamped<T> gives us a readable output.
We can see that the values 0, 1 & 2 were each produced one second apart. An alternative to getting an absolute timestamp is to just get the interval since the last element. The TimeInterval extension method provides this. As per the Timestamp method, elements are wrapped in a light weight structure. This time the structure is the TimeInterval<T> type.
As you can see from the output, the timings are not exactly one second but are pretty close.
Materialize and Dematerialize
The Timestamp and TimeInterval transform operators can prove useful for logging and debugging sequences, so too can the Materialize operator. Materialize transitions a sequence into a metadata representation of the sequence, taking an IObservable<T> to an IObservable<Notification<T>>. The Notification type provides meta data for the events of the sequence.
If we materialize a sequence, we can see the wrapped values being returned.
Note that when the source sequence completes, the materialized sequence produces an 'OnCompleted' notification value and then completes. Notification<T> is an abstract class with three implementations:
Notification<T> exposes four public properties to help you discover
Obviously only OnNextNotification will return true for
and have a useful implementation of
Value. It should also be obvious
OnErrorNotification is the only implementation that will have
a value for
Kind property returns an
enum which should allow you to know which methods are appropriate to
In this next example we produce a faulted sequence. Note that the final value of the materialized sequence is an OnErrorNotification. Also that the materialized sequence does not error, it completes successfully.
Materializing a sequence can be very handy for performing analysis or logging of a sequence. You can unwrap a materialized sequence by applying the Dematerialize extension method. The Dematerialize will only work on IObservable<Notification<TSource>>.
Of the transformation operators above, we can see that Select is the most useful. It allows very broad flexibility in its transformation output and can even be used to reproduce some of the other transformation operators. The SelectMany operator however is even more powerful. In LINQ and therefore Rx, the bind method is SelectMany. Most other transformation operators can be built with SelectMany. Considering this, it is a shame to think that SelectMany may be one of the most misunderstood methods in LINQ.
In my personal discovery of Rx, I struggled to grasp the SelectMany extension
method. One of my colleagues helped me understand SelectMany better by
suggesting I think of it as
from one, select many. An even better definition
From one, select zero or more. If we look at the signature for SelectMany
we see that it takes a source sequence and a function as its parameters.
selector parameter is a function that takes a single value of
T and returns a sequence. Note that the sequence the
returns does not have to be of the same type as the
the SelectMany return type is the same as the
This method is very important to understand if you wish to work with Rx effectively, so let's step through this slowly. It is also important to note its subtle differences to IEnumerable<T>'s SelectMany operator, which we will look at soon.
Our first example will take a sequence with the single value '3' in it. The selector
function we provide will produce a further sequence of numbers. This result sequence
will be a range of numbers from 1 to the value provided i.e. 3. So we take the sequence
 and return the sequence [1,2,3] from our
If we modify our source to be a sequence of [1,2,3] like this...
...we will now get an output with the result of each sequence (, [1,2] and [1,2,3]) flattened to produce [1,1,2,1,2,3].
This last example better illustrates how SelectMany can take a single
value and expand it to many values. When we then apply this to a sequence
of values, the result is each of the child sequences combined to produce the final
sequence. In both examples, we have returned a sequence that is the same type as
the source. This is not a restriction however, so in this next example we return
a different type. We will reuse the Select example of transforming an integer
to an ASCII character. To do this, the
selector function just returns
a char sequence with a single value.
So with the input of  we return a sequence of [A].
Extending the source sequence to have many values, will give us a result with many values.
Now the input of [1,2,3] produces [[A], [B], [C]] which is flattened to just [A,B,C].
Note that we have effectively recreated the Select operator.
The last example maps a number to a letter. As there are only 26 letters, it would be nice to ignore values greater than 26. This is easy to do. While we must return a sequence for each element of the source, there aren't any rules that prevent it from being an empty sequence. In this case if the element value is a number outside of the range 1-26 we return an empty sequence.
To be clear, for the source sequence [1..30], the value 1 produced a sequence [A],
the value 2 produced a sequence [B] and so on until value 26 produced a sequence
[Z]. When the source produced value 27, the
selector function returned
the empty sequence . Values 28, 29 and 30 also produced empty sequences. Once
all the sequences from the calls to the selector had been fattened to produce the
final result, we end up with the sequence [A..Z].
Now that we have covered the third of our three higher order functions, let us take time to reflect on some of the methods we have already learnt. First we can consider the Where extension method. We first looked at this method in the chapter on Reducing a sequence. While this method does reduce a sequence, it is not a fit for a functional fold as the result is still a sequence. Taking this into account, we find that Where is actually a fit for bind. As an exercise, try to write your own extension method version of Where using the SelectMany operator. Review the last example for some help...
An example of a Where extension method written using SelectMany:
Now that we know we can use SelectMany to produce Where, it should be a natural progression for you the reader to be able to extend this to reproduce other filters like Skip and Take.
As another exercise, try to write your own version of the Select extension
method using SelectMany. Refer to our example where we use SelectMany
int values into
char values if you need some
An example of a Select extension method written using SelectMany:
IEnumerable<T> vs. IObservable<T> SelectMany
It is worth noting the difference between the implementations of IEnumerable<T>SelectMany and IObservable<T>SelectMany. Consider
that IEnumerable<T> sequences are pull based and blocking. This means
that when an IEnumerable<T> is processed with a SelectMany
it will pass one item at a time to the
selector function and wait until
it has processed all of the values from the
selector before requesting
(pulling) the next value from the source.
Consider an IEnumerable<T> source sequence of [1,2,3]. If we process that with a SelectMany operator that returns a sequence of [x*10, (x*10)+1, (x*10)+2], we would get the [[10,11,12], [20,21,22], [30,31,32]].
We then apply the
GetSubValues method with the following code:
The resulting child sequences are flattened into [10,11,12,20,21,22,30,31,32].
The difference with IObservable<T> sequences is that the call to
selector function is not blocking and the
result sequence can produce values over time. This means that subsequent 'child'
sequences can overlap. Let us consider again a sequence of [1,2,3], but this time
values are produced three second apart. The
selector function will
also produce sequence of [x*10, (x*10)+1, (x*10)+2] as per the example above, however
these values will be four seconds apart.
To visualize this kind of asynchronous data we need to represent space and time.
Let's divert quickly and talk about a technique we will use to help communicate the concepts relating to sequences. Marble diagrams are a way of visualizing sequences. Marble diagrams are great for sharing Rx concepts and describing composition of sequences. When using marble diagrams there are only a few things you need to know
- a sequence is represented by a horizontal line
- time moves to the right (i.e. things on the left happened before things on the right)
- notifications are represented by symbols:
- '0' for OnNext
- 'X' for an OnError
- '|' for OnCompleted
- many concurrent sequences can be visualized by creating rows of sequences
This is a sample of a sequence of three values that completes:
This is a sample of a sequence of four values then an error:
Now going back to our SelectMany example, we can visualize our input sequence by using values in instead of the 0 marker. This is the marble diagram representation of the sequence [1,2,3] spaced three seconds apart (note each character represents one second).
Now we can leverage the power of marble diagrams by introducing the concept of time and space. Here we see the visualization of the sequence produced by the first value 1 which gives us the sequence [10,11,12]. These values were spaced four seconds apart, but the initial value is produce immediately.
0 1 2|
As the values are double digit they cover two rows, so the value of 10 is not confused
with the value 1 immediately followed by the value 0. We add a row for each sequence
produced by the
0 1 2|
0 1 2|
0 1 2|
Now that we can visualize the source sequence and its child sequences, we should be able to deduce the expected output of the SelectMany operator. To create a result row for our marble diagram, we simple allow the values from each child sequence to 'fall' into the new result row.
0 1 2|
0 1 2|
0 1 2|
0 01 012 12 2|
If we take this exercise and now apply it to code, we can validate our marble diagram. First our method that will produce our child sequences:
This is the code that takes the source sequence to produce our final output:
The output produced matches our expectations from the marble diagram.
We have previously looked at the Select operator when it is used in Query Comprehension Syntax, so it is worth noting how you use the SelectMany operator. The Select extension method maps quite obviously to query comprehension syntax, SelectMany is not so obvious. As we saw in the earlier example, the simple implementation of just using Select is as follows:
If we wanted to add a simple
where clause we can do so like this:
To add a SelectMany to the query, we actually add an extra
An advantage of using the query comprehension syntax is that you can easily access other variables in the scope of the query. In this example we select into an anon type both the value from the source and the child value.
This brings us to a close on Part 2. The key takeaways from this were to allow you the reader to understand a key principal to Rx: functional composition. As we move through Part 2, examples became progressively more complex. We were leveraging the power of LINQ to chain extension methods together to compose complex queries.
We didn't try to tackle all of the operators at once, we approached them in groups.
On deeper analysis of the operators we find that most of the operators are actually specialization of the higher order functional concepts. We named them the ABC's of functional programming:
- Anamorphism, aka:
- Bind, aka:
- Catamorphism, aka:
Now you should feel that you have a strong understanding of how a sequence can be manipulated. What we have learnt up to this point however can all largely be applied to IEnumerable sequences too. Rx can be much more complex than what many people will have dealt with in IEnumerable world, as we have seen with the SelectMany operator. In the next part of the book we will uncover features specific to the asynchronous nature of Rx. With the foundation we have built so far we should be able to tackle the far more challenging and interesting features of Rx.
Additional recommended reading
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